NEWS STORIES RELATED TO SAN FRANCISCO’S NATURAL HISTORY

November 30, 2017

Greenland’s melting ice and coastal cities’ future.

Don’t flush those drugs down the toilet or put ’em in the sink or the landfill.

Advertisements

SAN FRANCISCO’S NATURAL HISTORY

November 27, 2017

RECOMMENDED READING LIST:

Abbey, Edward.  Monkey Wrench Gang.

Harper, Kyle.  The Fate of Rome: Climate, Disease, and the End of an Empire.

Lifton, Robert Jay.  The Climate Swerve.

Monbiot, George.  Feral: Rewilding the Land, the Sea, and Human Life

Thoreau, Henry David.  Any or all of his journals.

SAN FRANCISCO IMAGES: AFTER 1860

November 13, 2017

The city in 1864:SF AERIAL--1864Lake Merced, 1868:lake-merced-1868

Plowing the dunes in preparing to create Golden Gate Park, 1870s:GGP-plowing-dunes

1875 map:sf 1875

The city in 1877, looking south over Telegraph Hill:sf--1877

Golden Gate Park as trees take root, 1880, along Ocean Beach:GGP-1880San Francisco, 1890:SF--1890

Golden Gate Park, 1892, for Mid-winter Exposition:GG PARK 18921897 map:sf 1897San Francisco before earthquake:OLD WATERFRONTCutting through sand hill to make Second Street near Rincon Point, before 1900.Second-Street-Cut-1869-A12.28.752nLiving with sand after earthquake:sand hillsTheodore Wores’ painting of dunes looking across to Lake Merced in early 1900s, lupine in bloom where houses now stand:1914San-Francisco-Sand-Dunes-and-Lake-merced

1914, as automobiles begin to dominate the city:sf aeriaL--1914Lake Merced Boulevard construction:LakeMercedBlvdConstruction

Fort Funston, preparing for war. Below that is Lake Merced at top of image with the peninsula leading to today’s golf course visible:Ft_Funston_Cantonment_Areafunston2

Sunset District just after WW2:Sunset_dunes_1947Richmond District today, note the small pockets of private open space between houses:richmond aerialrichmond aerial2Lake Merced today:merced todaySan-Francisco-Natural-Heritage-Map

SAN FRANCISCO IMAGES: BEFORE 1860

November 13, 2017

The Ohlone managed the landscape through use of fire. They traveled on the bay in tule canoes:

ohlone boatOHLONE FIREOhlone village sites:Ohlone_villages-mapohlone1ohlone3Pre-colonial landscape:IMG_1964

Capt. Beechey’s map from 1826-7:sf mapJust before the Gold Rush:early yerba buena town
First United States map of San Francisco, before Gold Rush.sf1848

1849, Gold Rush boomtown and bay fillearly mapearlysf1early-yerba-buena YB PORTSan Francisco viewed from Yerba Buena Island, circa 1850.SF from YB

1851 and the ships abandoned by crews

1851MapSF-1851YB PORT2YB PORT3YB PORT4San Francisco in 1852:SF DURING GOLD RUSH-18521855 view of city from Rincon Point:SF FROM RINCON PT-1855South of Market developed despite the natural landscape and marshes:soma yesterday

 

HOW TO HELP TRACK SAN FRANCISCO’S CRITTERS

November 1, 2017

For any non-avian species you can record your sighting on this website: https://www.inaturalist.org/

The best place to record your bird sightings is on: http://ebird.org/content/nw/

SAN FRANCISCO NATURAL HISTORY BOOK

April 20, 2017

Click here for description of contents and images and maps of early San Francisco.

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Map of original landscape

Chronology

Preface

Chap. 1  Before

Chap. 2 People Evict Nature

Chap. 3 Green in Winter, Brown in Summer: Precolonial Flora

Chap. 4 Before the Guns Arrived: Pre-Colonial Fauna

Chap. 5 Low on the Food Pyramid: Cold-blooded Animals

Chap. 6 What Happened?

Chap.  7  Tree Cutting: What Else Are Trees For?

Chap. 8 People Change Nature: The Introduced and the Invasive

Chap. 9 Killing for Fun and Profit

Chap. 10  Gold Rush and Urban Growth

Chap. 11   Changes in Bird Life

Chap. 12   Mammals: Survivors and Ghosts

No mention of rabbits of either species, inc coyote status however

Chap. 13  San Francisco’s Islands: Fragile and Despoiled

Chap. 14  Golden Gate Park, includes more on McLaren and Hall

Chap. 15  And Now…

Chap. 16  Climate Change

Chap. 17 A Throwaway Society and Where All That Unwanted Stuff Goes

Chap 18 Disturbance and Restoration

Acknowledgements

Bibliography and useful websites

Index

San Francisco’s Natural History

April 20, 2017

Now I am shipping copies already ordered.  Books arrived today.  This book is also available for order from Amazon as book paperback and inexpensive Kindle download.
SAN FRANCISCO’S NATURAL HISTORY
FROM SAND DUNES TO STREETCARS69644847_Kindle Ready Front Cover JPEG_7303473


This book will sell for $25 plus shipping of approximately $3.20.  I am hoping it will be available in selected San Francisco book stores.  It will also be available as both a paperback and Kindle book from Amazon.

This book traces the changes in San Francisco’s landscape from the days of the Ohlone to the present.  What native species were present when only Native Americans lived here? What animal grazed, flew or swam here? In the wild countryside what natural waterways supported life?  What trees, fruits, and flowering plants would the Ohlone have known and used?  And…what happened to all that after the Europeans arrived? It’s a dramatic cascade of changes, filled with disappearance and devastation, ruin, restoration and rebirth.  As the centuries passed and the cityscape developed and changed, so has the natural landscape and the creatures in it, including us–humans, whose values and actions have altered and shaped everything.

In spite of what amounts to obliteration of the old natural environment, many native species survive and even thrive in the modern city.  “Life” here includes wildlife. Contemporary restoration projects mover forward.  Brown Pelicans and coyotes have been joined by new immigrants like collared-doves and eastern gray squirrels.  Forests of introduced trees today host Red-shouldered Hawks and Hooded Orioles. And yet, there is not stasis and never has been. Now comes climate change.  All is flux.

Through this book, I hope to help provide knowledge and perspective on what has gone before, but also what we now face.  To protect and preserve this peninsula, this beautiful piece of our planet, the decisions we humans must make are not just cosmetic, they are matters of life and death.  People must understand what’s happened and what’s happening in order to avoid repeating devastating mistakes of the past, and in order to proceed wisely and humanely into the future. From open space to micro-plastic pollution, the decisions rest with us.

SOME EXCERPTS

The want of sufficient level space on which to found so great and growing a city, has been partially rectified, at an enormous expense, by taking building ground from the waters, and by lowering, and in many cases absolutely removing bodily the multitude of sand hills, by which the place is immediately surrounded. What with digging out and filling up, piling, capping and planking, grading and regrading the streets, and shifting, and rebuilding, and again rebuilding the houses, to suit the altered levels, millions upon millions of dollars have been spent.                                       –Frank Soule, et al., The Annals of San Francisco, 1855

***

Nature’s plan has evolved through millions of years while man’s plans for the earth cover a short span of time and are very often both selfish and short-sighted.
–Helen Cruickshank, Thoreau’s Birds, 1964


***

Captain Jean François de La Perouse from France was the first European from outside the Spanish Empire to visit California after the founding of the missions and pueblos. In September 1786, he spent time in Monterey. About Monterey Bay he wrote: “It is impossible to describe the number of whales with which we were surrounded, or their familiarity. They spouted every half minute within pistol shot of our frigates, and caused a most annoying stench. We were unacquainted with this property in the whale, but the inhabitants informed us that the water thrown out by them is impregnated with this offensive smell.”

***

            In 1792–1793, Archibald Menzies, the medical officer for the British Expedition, headed by Captain George Vancouver, was immediately taken with the dramatic “broad sheet of water” that is the bay, described in the epigraph to this chapter. The observations by Menzies and other expedition crew are valuable as baseline information about how the area was changed over the decades that followed their visit. During their stay in the fall of 1792, the British sailors reported a large number of waterfowl in the marsh that is now Crissy Field. Menzies describes the area between Fort Mason and Fort Point as a “low track of Marshy Land along shore, with some Salt Water Lagoons that were supplied by the overflowings of high Tides and oozings through the Sandy Beach: on these we saw abundance of Ducks and wild Geese…”  Vancouver mentions large livestock flocks. He is visiting in 1792, less than two decades after the first colonists arrived from Mexico. Yet, already hundreds of domestic animals are ranging across a fragile landscape.

***

1820   Estimated 200,000 northern fur seals killed for their pelts.

1932  First Mockingbird sighted in San Francisco.

***

One of the few surface streams still to be seen in San Francisco runs down Glen Canyon. It constitutes the headwaters of Precita Creek, which joins Islais Creek, named from the Ohlone word for hollyleaf cherry… In 1869 America’s first dynamite factory, the Giant Powder Company, blew up in Glen Canyon. Also, in the late 1800s, the canyon, then known as Rock Gulch, supported a private zoo and amusement park.

***

San Francisco’s original grasslands and coastal scrub are almost gone. Most grassland fell before invasive plants, pavement, housing, and other heavy use. A large swath of coastal prairie in McLaren Park became Gleneagles Golf Course. Fortunately, a parcel of nearly natural habitat survives on the eastern slope of Mount Davidson.

***

Farallones: Research over the past four decades by Point Blue has shown that Common Murres are now breeding earlier in the year, in response to climate change and its effects on upwelling in the California current.

***

Golden Gate Park: In 1870, when this land was set aside by the city government for a park, it was largely sand dunes. Before it was landscaped and planted, there were a few willow-bordered lakes on the site, some squatters in residence, and scattered oak groves in sheltered areas furthest from the windy beach. The most respected landscape expert at the time was Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of New York’s Central Park. He warned San Francisco these lands outside the city limits were not suitable for a proper urban, forested park. Olmsted’s conclusion about a park in the city was part cautionary, part damning: “There is not a full grown tree of beautiful proportions near San Francisco, nor have I seen any young trees that promise fairly, except, perhaps, of certain compact clump forms of evergreens, wholly wanting in grace and cheerfulness. It would not be wise nor safe to undertake to form a park upon any plan which assumed as a certainty that trees which would delight the eye can be made to grow near San Francisco.”

***

In 2010, the public had no idea that harmful micro-beads of plastic were being put into many consumer products and we were all guilty of spreading them across the planet. The San Francisco Estuary Institute and its partners are now studying the presence of micro-plastics and nano-plastics in San Francisco Bay. This research is being led by Dr. Rebecca Sutton. Her preliminary study found the bay was more contaminated by plastic than the Great Lakes or Chesapeake Bay.

***

Perhaps most threatening are a group of invasive Asian earthworms first identified on the East Coast and found in Oregon in 2016. The risk from these invaders is that they feed on the surface material in forests, quickly turning leaf litter and fallen plant matter into worm food and then feces. They drive out nondestructive worm species and clear the soil for erosion and desiccation, weakening forests trying to survive climate change and drought.

***

Climate change: Just how bad can this get?  A scientific look back at a previous die-off caused by ocean acidification brings up terrifying images if you value any currently living creature.  Volcanologist Seth Burgess studied the geological and biological changes that took place at the end of the Permian period about 250-255 million years ago.  It wasn’t simply the end of a geological age, it was the end of most living organisms.  Fossil records show that 90% of all ocean organisms and 70% of those on land went extinct. Trees and coral reefs disappeared. 

=============

Other links pertaining to this book:

Newslinks, stories pertinent to San Francisco’s natural history—present and future.

Table of Contents

Species named in the book

San Francisco images, before 1860 
San Francisco images, 1860 to present 

 

 

 

 

GREAT GRAY OWL RANGE MAPS FOR PACIFIC SLOPE

June 30, 2016

Here are the range maps from our Great Gray Owl book, feel free to use and copy. Please give us credit as these are original maps based on our research.  I hope in twenty years new maps will show that there are owls in some of the interstices and that the species is thriving. Much of this information came from direct witnesses including many helpful biologists with federal and state agencies.great_gray_owl_range-california_2015great_gray_owl_range-eastern_oregon_2015great_gray_owl_range-washington_state_2015great_gray_owl_range-western_oregon_2015

We have provided much needed information for the wikipedia entry on this species, Check it out here.

GREAT GRAY OWL VIDEOS

April 4, 2016

There is a series of four Great Gray Owl videos taken in March, 2016, near Howard Prairie in the Cascades east of Ashland, OR.  A blog on my birding site has links to each of the videos, including one showing the mated pair preening one another.

Click for link to that blog.

BIRDS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

March 14, 2016

A BIBLIOGRPHY:

CLIMATE CHANGE: A SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PACIFIC COAST BIRDERS

Alaska’s spruce bark beetle crisis:

http://forestry.alaska.gov/insects/sprucebarkbeetle.htm

Amphibian decline:

http://amphibiaweb.org/declines/declines.html

Aridity:

A Great Aridness. William de Buys.

All the Wild That Remains. David Gessner. Book describes the environmental thoughts of Stegner and Abbey and author visits sites they knew and loved.

When the Rivers Run Dry. Fred Pearce.

Atlantic Ocean Plankton Bloom: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/climate-change-atlantic-plankton-bloom-reflects-soaring-carbon-dioxide-levels-scientists-say-a6750241.html

Audubon Society study on birds affected by climate change: http://climate.audubon.org/

Avian keratin disorder:

http://atowhee.wordpress.com/2014/08/14/freak-beak/

I am investigating an epizootic of similar bill deformities in Alaska. This epizootic has recently spread to the Pacific Northwest, with a large cluster of bill deformities appearing in the Puget Sound region. Birds affected by this ‘avian keratin disorder’ have bills that are abnormally long and often crossed, such as in this nuthatch. We’ve determined that the keratin layer of the beak (like the material in a person’s fingernails) is growing too rapidly. Despite extensive testing, we still don’t know what’s causing the problem. We’ve documented beak deformities among a large number of species, including chickadees, crows, nuthatches, jays, woodpeckers, ravens, and several raptors. We are very interested in receiving reports of any birds with abnormal bills such as this one. Please visit our website at the USGS Alaska Science Center or contact me directly:

http://alaska.usgs.gov/science/biology/landbirds/beak_deformity/index.html

–Colleen Handel
Research Wildlife Biologist
USGS Alaska Science Center
cmhandel@usgs.gov

Beetle infestation:

Empire of the Beetle. Andrew Nikiforuk.

Birds as sentinel species: “Canaries in a Global Cole Mine?” pp. 1337-1338. “Ecology” 88(5), 2007. Review of the book Birds and Climate Change by Moller et al. Elsevier. Burlington, Mass. 2006.

Birds Reacting to Climate Change: http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20160117/news/160119263/

Bobcat-lynx hybrids:

http://www.nrri.umn.edu/lynx/information/hybrid.html

Bumble bee evolution right now: Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change. Authors: Nicole E. Miller-Struttmann, Jennifer C. Geib, James D. Franklin, et al.     Science 25 September 2015: 1541-1544. [DOI:10.1126/science.aab0868] Researchers write: “We found that in two alpine bumble bee species, decreases in tongue length have evolved over 40 years. Co-occurring flowers have not become shallower, nor are small-flowered plants more prolific. We argue that declining floral resources because of warmer summers have favored generalist foraging, leading to a mismatch between shorter-tongued bees and the longer-tubed plants they once pollinated.”

California climate change:

http://www.climatechange.ca.gov/climate_action_team/reports/

http://oehha.ca.gov/multimedia/epic/   [this contains list of all state’s climate change reports]

California’s official West Nile Virus website:

http://westnile.ca.gov/wnv_basics.htm

California West Nile infection map:

http://westnile.ca.gov/latest_activity.php

Carbon tetrachloride still being emitted:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/23/ozone-depleting-compound-found_n_5701157.html

Center for Biological Diversity:

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/index.html

Christmas Bird Count Analysis:

WWW.audubon.org/bird/bacc/species.html

Climate change anxiety:

http://www.care2.com/causes/climate-change-anxiety-and-how-we-can-become-climate-resilient.html

Climate change disagreement, not debate:

“How to Talk About climate Change So People Will Listen. By Charles Mann. “The Atlantic,” Sept., 2014.

Climate-induced Faunal Change in North America. Joshua Lawler, et al. Ecological Society of America. “Ecology.” Vol. 90. March, 2009. 588-597.

Climate Peril: The Intelligent Reader’s Guide to Understanding the Climate Crisis. By John Berger. Northbrae Books. 2014.

Coal use worse than we’ve been told:

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28942403

Coal burning waste:

http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/coalvswind/c02d.html

Cod Population Collapses in Maine waters:

http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/1029/Fishermen-obeyed-their-quotas-so-why-did-Maine-cod-stocks-collapse

Clean energy getting cheaper: http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2016/03/climate-change-and-conservative-brain-death.html

“Climate for Coffee” in “National Geographic” magazine. Sept. 2015.

Cool it. The Climate Issue. National Geographic. November, 2015.

Corvids replanting forests: http://arstechnica.com/science/2016/02/corvids-could-save-forests-from-the-effects-of-climate-change/

Drought to Extend Beyond Western U.S.
http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/2016/0222/Not-just-a-western-problem-drought-threatens-forests-across-US

Eggs Hatch Early:
http://www.forbes.com/sites/grrlscientist/2016/02/18/the-heat-is-on-climate-change-causes-birds-to-hatch-early/#59ff96293f0c

 

Extinction

Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History. Elizabeth Colbert. Henry Holt. 2014.

Extinctions predicted:

“Extinction risk from climate change” letter in Nature 427, 145-148 (8 January 2004) | doi:10.1038/nature02121; Received 10 September 2003; Accepted 13 October 2003, By Chris Thomas, et al.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6970/full/nature02121.html

Feral.   George Monbiot. Penguin. 2013. Argues for helping all animals and plants find space for survival.

Website for book: http://www.monbiot.com/2013/05/24/feral-searching-for-enchantment-on-the-frontiers-of-rewilding/

Greenhouse gas list, according to IPCC:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPCC_list_of_greenhouse_gases

Greenland ice sheet loss accelerates:

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28852980

Grizzly-Polar Bear Hybridization

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/17/magazine/should-you-fear-the-pizzly-bear.html?

Health hazards with climate change:

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/health.html

IPCC report, Fall, 2014:

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2014/08/26/climate-change-report-united-nations/14638079/

Christina Larson “Hostile shores”

Science 9 October 2015: 150-152. [DOI:10.1126/science.350.6257.150]. Describes environmental degradation of marshlands used by Asian migrant birds.

 

Methane from rice:

http://www.ghgonline.org/methanerice.htm

Methane sources:

http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/ch4.html

Miami: The Siege of Miami. Elizabeth Kolbert. New Yorker magazine. Dec. 21 & 28, 2015. Pp. 42-50.

Minnesota moose population:

http://www.startribune.com/local/270761141.html

Moose population decreases:

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/15/science/earth/something-is-killing-off-the-moose.html

Monarch migration and species hybrids on NPR’s “On Point:”

http://onpoint.wbur.org/2014/08/20/monarch-butterflies-migration-climate-change

Monarch population decline:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/08/140819-monarch-butterfly-milkweed-environment-ecology-science/

Monarch population decline covered by “Living on Earth,” of NPR:

http://www.loe.org/shows/shows.html?programID=14-P13-00026

Monterey pine disease:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine_pitch_canker

Mountaintop species and climate change:

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/biodiversity/mountaintop_species/index.html

National Wildlife Federation, on adaptation to climate change:

www.nwf.org/climate-smart

Oak sudden death:

http://www.suddenoakdeath.org/

Ocean acidification effects on marine life:

http://oceana.org/en/our-work/climate-energy/ocean-acidification/learn-act/effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-marine-species-ecosystems

“PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTIONS IN THE YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIE (PICA NUTTALLI): A CALIFORNIA ENDEMIC BIRD”

Holly B. Ernest, Leslie W. Woods and Bruce R. Hoar

Journal of Wildlife Diseases Apr 2010, Vol. 46, No. 2 (April 2010) pp. 401-408

M

 

Moller, Anders, et al. (eds). Feeling the Heat. Elsevier, Burlington, MA. 2006.

Pepperwood Preserve climate change studies:

http://app.pepperwoodpreserve.org/pls/apex/f?p=514:10:7789024140228

Phytophthora: a plant killer loose in California
https://baynature.org/articles/phytophthora-new-strains-breaking-the-mold/

Pine beetles:

http://e360.yale.edu/feature/whats_killing_the_great_forests_of_the_american_west/2252/

Pollinator Threats: http://www.ipbes.net/article/pollinators-vital-our-food-supply-under-threat

Rising land:

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-08-21/epic-drought-in-west-is-literally-moving-mountains.html

Satellite Launched to Monitor Sea Level: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/satellite-launched-to-monitor-sea-level-global-warming/

Solar power installation kills birds:

http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2014/08/22/pecking-order-energys-toll-on-birds

Species Moving Toward the Poles Eli Fenichel from the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies: https://environment.yale.edu/profile/eli-fenichel/research

Starfish die-off on Pacific Coast:

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/scientists-zero-whats-causing-starfish-die-offs/

Tricolored Blackbird Population Crisis

http://ca.audubon.org/newsroom/press-releases/2014/california-fish-and-game-commission-considers-emergency-listing-tricolo

Urban heat islands:

www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/20/urban-heat-island-effect-us-cities_n_5696009.html?

Warming hiatus:

http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/atlantic-ocean-slows-global-warming-but-scientists-believe-hiatus-will-end-around-2030-1.2743216?cmp=fbtl

Weather caused by climate change?   http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/11/opinion/what-weather-is-the-fault-of-climate-change.html?

White-tailed Ptarmigan’s future:

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/birds/white-tailed_ptarmigan/map.html

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/birds/white-tailed_ptarmigan/

Why Are We Waiting? The Logic, Urgency, and Promise of Tackling Climate Change. Nicholas Stern. MIT Press. 2015.

World Health Organization on climate change, starvation and disease:

http://www.who.int/topics/climate/en/