SAN FRANCISCO’S NATURAL HISTORY: SPECIES MENTIONED IN THE BOOK

October 2, 2017

ANIMALS

abalone (Haliotis sp.)
Acmon blue butterfly (Plebejus acmon)
Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus)
albacore (Thunnus alalunga)
Albatross, Black-footed (Phoebastria nigripes)
American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana)
American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana)
American Coot (Fulica americana)
American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)
American Pipit (Anthus rubescens)
American Robin (Turdua migratorius)
American Wigeon (Anas americana)
anchovy (Engraulidae family)
Anna’s Hummingbird (Calypta anna)
ant, Argentine (Iridomynmex humilis)
ant, harvester (Messor andrei)
ant, harvester (Pheidole californica)
ant, southern fire (Solenopsis xyloni)
aplodontia also mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa ssp. californica.)
arboreal salamander (Aneides lugubris)
arrow goby  (Clevelandia ios)
Ashy Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa)
Asian jumping earthworms or snake worms (Amynthas agrestis, A. tokioensis, and Metaphire hilgendorfi)
Australian hare also brown hare (Lepus capensis)
badger, American (Taxidea taxus)
Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)
banana slug (Ariolimas sp.)
Band-tailed Pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata)
Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia)
bark beetle also mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)
Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)
barnacles (Mitella polymerus)
beaver (Castor canadensis)
bedbug (Cimex lectularius)
Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)
bison, American (Bison bison)
Bewick’s Wren (Thryomanes bewickii)
bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)
Bittern, American (Botaurus lentiginosus)
Bittern, Least (Ixobrychus exilis)
black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii)
black bear (Ursus americanus)
Black Osytercatcher (Haematopus bachmani)
Black Phoebe (Sayornis nigricans)
black rat also roof rat (Rattus rattus)
Black Scoter (Melanitta americana)
Black Turnstone (Arenaria melanocephala)
blackbirds  (Icterus sp.)
Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus)
blacktail bay shrimp (Crangon nigricauda)
black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus)
black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus)
Black-throated Magpie-jay(Calocitta colliei)
blue whale formerly Sulphur bottom whale (Balaenoptera musculus)
bobcat (Lynx rufus)
Bonaparte’s Gull (Chroicocephalus Philadelphia)
Botta’s pocket gopher (Thomonys bottae)
Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus)
Brewer’s Blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus)
brown rat also Norway rat or sewer rat (Rattus norvegicus)
Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)
brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani)
Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola)
bullfrog, American (Lithobates catesbeianus)
Bullock’s Oriole (Icterus bullockii)
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia)
cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae)
California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus)
California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi)
California Gull  (Larus californicus)
California kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae)
California newt ( Taricha torosa)
California oyster (Ostrea lurida)
California Partridge (Callipepla californica)
California Quail also crested partridge (Tetrix cristatus)
California Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica)
California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)
California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher)
California slender salamander (Batrachoseps attenuates)
California toad (Anaxyrus boeas halophilus)
California Thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum)
Canada Goose (Branta Canadensis)
Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia)
Cassin’s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus)
Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)
cheekspot goby (Ilypnus gilberti)
chiton (class  Polyplacophora)
Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera)                          
Clark’s Grebe (Aechmophorus clarkia)
Cliff Swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)
cockles (Clinocardium nuttallii)
coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)
common dolphin (Delphinus sp.)
Common Loon (Gavia immer)
Common Merganser (Mergus merganser)
Common Raven (Corvus corax)
Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)
Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)
cormorants (Pelecanus sp.)
cougar (Puma concolor)
cow (Bos taurus)
coyote (Canis latrans)
Curlew, Long-billed also curlieus (Numenius americanus)
Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis)
deer, mule or black-tailed (Odocoileus hemionus)
dog (Canis lupus familiaris)
Douglas squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii)
Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)
Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister)
eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger)
eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus)
Elegant Tern (Thalasseus elegans)
elephant seal, northern, also sea elephant (Mirounga angustirostris)
elk (Cervus elaphus)
Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)
European green crab also shore crab (Carcinus maenas)
finback whale also fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)
fleas (order Siphonaptera)
Flicker, Northern (Picus auratus)
frog, red-legged (Rana draytonii)
fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus)
garden snail (Cornu aspersum),(Cantareus asperses) or (Cryptomphalus asperses)
goat, domestic (Capra aegagrus hircus)
Godwit, Marbled (Limosa fedoa)
gopher snake (Pituophis catenifer)
gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)
Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias)
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)
Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)
Green-winged Teal (Anas carolinensis)
grizzly bear (Ursus arctos californicus) now extinct in California
ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi)
gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar)
hammerhead shark (family Sphyrnidae)
harbor seal (Phoca vitulina)
Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus)
Heermann’s Gull (Larus heermanni)
Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus)
Herring Gull, American also Smithsonian Gull (Larus smithsonianus)
hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus)
honeybee mite (Varroa destructor)
Hooded Oriole (Icterus cucullatus)
horse (Equus ferus caballus)
house cat (Felis catus)
House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)
house mouse (Mus musculus)
House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)
hump-backed whale (Megaptera novaengliae)
Hutton’s Vireo (Vireo huttoni)
jackrabbit, black-tailed (Lepus californicus)
Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)
Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous)
Kumamoto oyster (Crassostrea sikamea)
lamprey (order Petromyzontiformes)
lark (Alauda sp. )
Lazuli Bunting (Passerina amoena)
Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa)
Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla)
Least Tern (Sternula antillarum)
Lesser Goldfinch (Spinus psaltria)
Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis)                                                       
lingcod (Ophiodon elongates)
long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata)
Magpie, Yellow-billed (Pica nuttalli)
mahi mahi (Coryphaena hippurus)
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)
Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris)
mergansers (Mergus sp.)
mission blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides missionensis)
mole (Scapanus sp.)
monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)
mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa)
Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)
mussels (Mytilus californianus, Mytilus edulis)
New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)
northern bluet (Enallagma annexum)
Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)
Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)
Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)
Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata)
Nuttall’s Woodpecker (Picoides nuttallii)
Oak Titmouse (Baeolophus inornatus)
ocean sunfish (Mola mola)
opossum (Didelphis virginiana)
oriental shrimp (Palaeamon macrodactylus)
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)
oyster, Atlantic or eastern (Crassostrea virginica)
oyster, Olympic (Ostrea conchaphila or lurida)
oyster, Pacific or Japanese (Crassostrea gigas)
Pacific-slope Flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis)
Pacific Loon (Gavia pacifica)
Pacific pond turtle (Actinemys marmorata)
Pacific tree frog also Pacific chorus frog (Hyla regilla)
Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus)
Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus)
Pelican, Brown (Pelecanus occidentalis)
Peregrine (Falco peregrinus)
Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus Columba)
Pigeon, Rock, also Feral Pigeon (Columba livia)
Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus)
Plover, Semipalmated (Charadrius semipalmatus)
pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae)
Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus)
pronghorn (Antilocapra Americana)
Raccoon (Procyon lotor)
rainwater killifish (Luciana parva)
rat, black (Rattus rattus)
rat, brown (Rattus norvegicus)
red fox (Vulpes vulpes)
Red-breasted Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus ruber)
Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta)
red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii)
Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena)
Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)
Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)
Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata)
Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)
Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata)
Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)
ring-necked snake (Diadophis punctatus)
river otter (Lutra Canadensis)
rock cod (Lotella rhacina)
Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus)
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)
San Bruno elfin butterfly (Incisalia mossii bayensis)
San Francisco garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia)
Sandhill Crane (Grus Canadensis)
Sanderling (Calidris alba)
sandpiper  (Tring asp.)
Savannah Sparrow  (Passerculus sandwichensis)
sea otter (Enhydra lutris)
sea urchin  (Strongylocrentrotus purpusatus)
sheep (Ovis aries)
shrew (family Soricidae)
Sierra Nevada red fox (Vulpes vulpes necator)
smelt (family Osmeridae)
Snipe, Wilson’s (Gallinago delicata)
Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus)
Sooty Shearwater (Ardenna grisea)
sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus)
Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus)
spotted-wing vinegar fly (Drosophila suzukii)
squirrel, Douglas (Tamiasciurus douglasii)
squirrel, Eastern fox, or red (Sciurus niger)
squirrel, Eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis)
squirrel, western gray (Sciurus griseus)
staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus)
Steller’s Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri)
Steller’s sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) now extinct
striped bass (Morone saxatilis)
Striped skunk also polecat (Mephitis mephitis)
sturgeon (Acipenser sp.)
Surfbird (Aphriza virgata)
Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus)
three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
topsmelt (Atherinops affinis)
Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)
Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata)
tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes)
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)
turtle, Pacific Pond or Northern Western Pond (Actinemys marmorata)
Violet-Green Swallow (Tachycineta thalassina)
Wandering Tattler (Tringa incana)
Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus)
Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis)
Western Gull (Larus occidentalis)
Western Kingbird  (Tyrannus verticalis)
Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
western rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus)
Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri)
Western Tanager (Piranga ludoviciana)
Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus)
white abalone (Haliotes sorenseni)
White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys)
White-throated Swift (Aeronautes saxatalis)
White-winged Scoter (Anas perspicillata)
Willet (Tringa semipalmata)
Wilson’s Warbler (Cardellina pusilla)
Wood Duck (Aix sponsa)
wolf also timber wolf (Canis lupus)
wood rat (Neotoma albigula)
Wrentit (Chamaea fasciata)
Xerces blue (Glaucopsyche xerces) now extinct
yellow shorecrab (Hemigrapsus oregonensis)
Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechial)
yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus)

PLANTS

acacia (Albizia lopantha)
alkali heath (Frankenia salina)
American dunegrass (Leymus mollis)
American elm (Ulmus americana)
arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis)
Atlantic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora)
azalea (Rhododendron sp.)
bay laurel Umbellularia californica)
beachburr also silver burr ragweed

(Ambrosia chamissonis)

beach morning glory (Calystegia soldanella)
beach or coastal sagewort (Artemisia pycnocephala)
beach suncup or beach evening primrose (Camissonia cheiranthifolia)
bent grass (Agrostis microphylla)
Bermuda buttercup also sourgrass (Oxalisa pes-caprae or Oxalis cernua)
black mustard (Brassica nigra)
blackberry, Himalayan (Rubus discolor)
blue blossom ceanothous (Ceanothus thyrsiflorus)
blue elderberry (Sambucus cerulea)
broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia)
buckwheats (Eriogonum sp.)
California aster (Lessingia filaginifolia)
California blackberry (Rubus ursinus)
California buckeye (Aesculus californica)
California buttercup (Ranunculus californicus)
California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa)
California hazel (Corylus cornuta)
California laurel (Umbellularia californica)
California polypody (Polypodium californicum)
California poppy (Eschscholzia californica)
California rose (Rosa Californica)
California sagebrush (Artemesia californica)
California sea lavender (Limonium californicum)
cape ivy or German ivy (Delairea odorata)
cinquefoil (Potentilla anserina)
clarkia (Clarkia sp.)
clovers (Trifolium sp.)
coast buckwheat (Eriogonum parvifolium)

 

coffeeberry (Rhamnus californica)
common scouring rush (Equisetum hyemale)

 

common montia or miner’s lettuce (Montia chamissoi)
coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia)
coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis)
crimson columbine (Aquilegia formosa)
Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)
Douglas iris (Iris douglasiana)
dune gilia (Gilia capitata ssp. chamissonis)
dune tansy (Tanacetum camphoratum)
Dutchman’s pipe (Aristolochia californica)
dwarf flax (Hesperolinon congestum)
eel grass (Zostera marina)
English ivy (Hedera helix)
European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria)
fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
filaree (Erodium cicutyarium)
fleshy jaumea (Jaumea carnosa)
Franciscan manzanita  (Arctostaphylos hookeri ssp. Ravenii):endangered
Franciscan manzanita (Arctostaphylos hookeri ssp. franciscanum)
French broom (Genista monspessulana)
geranium (Geranium sp.)
giant horsetail (Equisetum telmateia)
giant scouring rush (Equisetum hyemale)
goldenrod (Solidago sp.)
golden yarrow (Eriophyllum conferiflorum)
gooseberry, California (Ribes aureum)
gum plant (Grindelia hirsutula)
hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii)
hollyhock (Alcea sp.)
hollyleaf cherry (Prunus ilicifolia)
honeysuckle, pink, also California honeysuckle (Lornicera hispidula)
iceplant, heartleaf  (Aptenai cordifolia)
iceplant, also hottentot fig. (Carpobrotus edulis)
Johnny jump up (Viola pedunculata)

 

kelp family of plants, Laminariales
lupine, dune (Lupinus chamissonis)
manzanita (Arctostaphylos)
Mexican tea also wormwood (Dysphania ambrosioides)
milkweed (Asclepias sp.)
mission bells, or chocolate lily (Fritillaria affinis)
Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa)
Monterey pine (pinus radiata)
mugwort (Artemisia sp.)

 

nasturtium (Tropaeolum)
New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides)
Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii)
Pacific reedgrass (Calamagrostis nutkaensis)
pampas grass (Cortaderia jubata)
periwinkle (Vinca major)
phlox family (Gilia clivorum)
pickleweed also Pacific swampfire (Salicornia pacifica)
pink sand-verbena (Abronia umbellata)
pittosporum (Pittosporum sp.)
poison hemlock (Conium maculatum)
poison oak (Toxicodendrum diversiloba)
ponderosa pine also western yellow pine (pinus ponderosa)
Presidio clarkia (Clarkia franciscana)
purple needlegrass (Nassella pulchra or Stipa pulchra)
purplespot gilia (Gilia clivorum)
radish (Raphanus sativus)
red flowering currant also pink flowering currant (Ribes sanguineum)
red maple (Acer rubrum)
redwood also California or coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)
rhododendron (Rhododendron sp.)
rushes (Juncus sp.)
Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia)
salt grass (Distichlis spicata)
San Francisco lessingia (Lessingia germanorum)
San Francisco spineflower (Chorizanthe cuspidata)
San Francisco wallflower (Erysimum franciscanum)
seafig (Azioaceae family)
seaside plantain  (Plantago maritima)
seaside woolly sunflower (Eriophyllum staechadifolium)
sedge (Carex genus)
sedges ( Scripus genus)
shortleaf dwarf cudweed (Herperevax sparsiflora)
silk tassel bush (Garrya elliptica)
silver beachburr, silver (Abrosia chamissonis)
silvery lupine (Lupinus argentus)
snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus)
southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum)
spear oracle (Atriplex patula)
spear scale (Atriplex triangularis)
spearmint
spearscale  (Extriplex joaquinana)
starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis)
sticky monkey flower (Mimulus aurantiacus)
stinging nettles
strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis)
thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus)

 

 

tobacco root plant (valeriana edulis)
toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia)
tules (Schoenoplectus acutus)
tulip tree (Liriodendron sp.)
twinberry honeysuckle (Lonicera involucrata, var. ledebourii)
water parsley
water smartweed (Polygonum amphibium var. emersum)
watercress (Nasturtium officianale)
water mint (Mentha aquatic)
wax myrtle (Myrica californica)
western bracken (Pteridium aquilinum)
white oak, California, also Garry oak (Quecus garryana)
wild carrot (Daucus carota)
wild currant (Ribes sp.)
wild oats or cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)
wild or sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
willow (Salix spp.)
yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
yellow bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus)
yellow sand-verbena (Abronia latifolia)
yellow-eyed grass (Xyris L.)
yerba buena  () p.17
yerba buena (Clinopodium douglasii or Micromeria douglasii). (formerly classified: Satureja douglasii and Micromeria chamissonis)

 

 

 

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SAN FRANCISCO’S NATURAL HISTORY: SOME RELATED LINKS

September 10, 2017

Warmer soil loses carbon to the atmosphere as global warming produces this negative feedback loop of more carbon into the air.

Neonicotinoids are contaminating bees and their honey around the world.  Bee-saster in the the making.

Click here for information on the herpes epidemic attacking commercial oyster beds using Asian oyster species.  The herpes microbes have been found in some oysters in California, not the native oysters.

Click here for info on Monsanto’s latest powerful poison and one state’s fight to prevent its use.

How bad can global warming extinctions become? https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/sep/09/this-is-how-your-world-could-end-climate-change-global-warming

SAN FRANCISCO NATURAL HISTORY BOOK

April 20, 2017

Click here for description of contents and images and maps of early San Francisco.

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Map of original landscape

Chronology

Preface

Chap. 1  Before

Chap. 2 People Evict Nature

Chap. 3 Green in Winter, Brown in Summer: Precolonial Flora

Chap. 4 Before the Guns Arrived: Pre-Colonial Fauna

Chap. 5 Low on the Food Pyramid: Cold-blooded Animals

Chap. 6 What Happened?

Chap.  7  Tree Cutting: What Else Are Trees For?

Chap. 8 People Change Nature: The Introduced and the Invasive

Chap. 9 Killing for Fun and Profit

Chap. 10  Gold Rush and Urban Growth

Chap. 11   Changes in Bird Life

Chap. 12   Mammals: Survivors and Ghosts

No mention of rabbits of either species, inc coyote status however

Chap. 13  San Francisco’s Islands: Fragile and Despoiled

Chap. 14  Golden Gate Park, includes more on McLaren and Hall

Chap. 15  And Now…

Chap. 16  Climate Change

Chap. 17 A Throwaway Society and Where All That Unwanted Stuff Goes

Chap 18 Disturbance and Restoration

Acknowledgements

Bibliography and useful websites

Index

San Francisco’s Natural History

April 20, 2017

To be published in 2017:
SAN FRANCISCO’S NATURAL HISTORY
FROM SAND DUNES TO STREETCARS69644847_Kindle Ready Front Cover JPEG_7303473

This book traces the changes in San Francisco’s landscape from the days of the Ohlone to the present.  What native species were present when only Native Americans lived here? What animal grazed, flew or swam here? In the wild countryside what natural waterways supported life?  What trees, fruits, and flowering plants would the Ohlone have known and used?  And…what happened to all that after the Europeans arrived? It’s a dramatic cascade of changes, filled with disappearance and devastation, ruin, restoration and rebirth.  As the centuries passed and the cityscape developed and changed, so has the natural landscape and the creatures in it, including us–humans, whose values and actions have altered and shaped everything.

In spite of what amounts to obliteration of the old natural environment, many native species survive and even thrive in the modern city.  “Life” here includes wildlife. Contemporary restoration projects mover forward.  Brown Pelicans and coyotes have been joined by new immigrants like collared-doves and eastern gray squirrels.  Forests of introduced trees today host Red-shouldered Hawks and Hooded Orioles. And yet, there is not stasis and never has been. Now comes climate change.  All is flux.

Through this book, I hope to help provide knowledge and perspective on what has gone before, but also what we now face.  To protect and preserve this peninsula, this beautiful piece of our planet, the decisions we humans must make are not just cosmetic, they are matters of life and death.  People must understand what’s happened and what;s happening in order to avoid repeating devastating mistakes of the past, and in order to proceed wisely and humanely into the future. From open space to micro-plastic pollution, the decisions rest with us.

The Ohlone managed the landscape through use of fire:

ohlone boatOHLONE FIREOhlone village sites:Ohlone_villages-mapohlone1ohlone3

Beechey’s map from 1826-7:sf map
First United States map of San Francisco, before Gold Rush.sf1848

1849, Gold Rush boomtown and bay fillearly mapearlysf1early-yerba-buena YB PORT

1851 and the ships abandoned by crews

1851MapSF-1851YB PORT2YB PORT3YB PORT4

Ocean Beach around 1890ob1890photoPlowing the dunes in preparing to create Golden Gate Park, 1870s:Richmond$plowing-dunes-with-horsesLiving with sand after earthquake:sand hillsTheodore Wores’ painting of dunes looking across to Lake Merced in early 1900s, lupine in bloom where houses now stand:San-Francisco-Sand-Dunes-and-Lake-mercedCutting through sand hill to make Second Street near Rincon Point, before 1900.Second-Street-Cut-1869-A12.28.752nSunset District just after WW2:Sunset_dunes_1947

GREAT GRAY OWL RANGE MAPS FOR PACIFIC SLOPE

June 30, 2016

Here are the range maps from our Great Gray Owl book, feel free to use and copy. Please give us credit as these are original maps based on our research.  I hope in twenty years new maps will show that there are owls in some of the interstices and that the species is thriving. Much of this information came from direct witnesses including many helpful biologists with federal and state agencies.great_gray_owl_range-california_2015great_gray_owl_range-eastern_oregon_2015great_gray_owl_range-washington_state_2015great_gray_owl_range-western_oregon_2015

We have provided much needed information for the wikipedia entry on this species, Check it out here.

GREAT GRAY OWL VIDEOS

April 4, 2016

There is a series of four Great Gray Owl videos taken in March, 2016, near Howard Prairie in the Cascades east of Ashland, OR.  A blog on my birding site has links to each of the videos, including one showing the mated pair preening one another.

Click for link to that blog.

BIRDS AND CLIMATE CHANGE

March 14, 2016

A BIBLIOGRPHY:

CLIMATE CHANGE: A SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PACIFIC COAST BIRDERS

Alaska’s spruce bark beetle crisis:

http://forestry.alaska.gov/insects/sprucebarkbeetle.htm

Amphibian decline:

http://amphibiaweb.org/declines/declines.html

Aridity:

A Great Aridness. William de Buys.

All the Wild That Remains. David Gessner. Book describes the environmental thoughts of Stegner and Abbey and author visits sites they knew and loved.

When the Rivers Run Dry. Fred Pearce.

Atlantic Ocean Plankton Bloom: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/climate-change-atlantic-plankton-bloom-reflects-soaring-carbon-dioxide-levels-scientists-say-a6750241.html

Audubon Society study on birds affected by climate change: http://climate.audubon.org/

Avian keratin disorder:

http://atowhee.wordpress.com/2014/08/14/freak-beak/

I am investigating an epizootic of similar bill deformities in Alaska. This epizootic has recently spread to the Pacific Northwest, with a large cluster of bill deformities appearing in the Puget Sound region. Birds affected by this ‘avian keratin disorder’ have bills that are abnormally long and often crossed, such as in this nuthatch. We’ve determined that the keratin layer of the beak (like the material in a person’s fingernails) is growing too rapidly. Despite extensive testing, we still don’t know what’s causing the problem. We’ve documented beak deformities among a large number of species, including chickadees, crows, nuthatches, jays, woodpeckers, ravens, and several raptors. We are very interested in receiving reports of any birds with abnormal bills such as this one. Please visit our website at the USGS Alaska Science Center or contact me directly:

http://alaska.usgs.gov/science/biology/landbirds/beak_deformity/index.html

–Colleen Handel
Research Wildlife Biologist
USGS Alaska Science Center
cmhandel@usgs.gov

Beetle infestation:

Empire of the Beetle. Andrew Nikiforuk.

Birds as sentinel species: “Canaries in a Global Cole Mine?” pp. 1337-1338. “Ecology” 88(5), 2007. Review of the book Birds and Climate Change by Moller et al. Elsevier. Burlington, Mass. 2006.

Birds Reacting to Climate Change: http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20160117/news/160119263/

Bobcat-lynx hybrids:

http://www.nrri.umn.edu/lynx/information/hybrid.html

Bumble bee evolution right now: Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change. Authors: Nicole E. Miller-Struttmann, Jennifer C. Geib, James D. Franklin, et al.     Science 25 September 2015: 1541-1544. [DOI:10.1126/science.aab0868] Researchers write: “We found that in two alpine bumble bee species, decreases in tongue length have evolved over 40 years. Co-occurring flowers have not become shallower, nor are small-flowered plants more prolific. We argue that declining floral resources because of warmer summers have favored generalist foraging, leading to a mismatch between shorter-tongued bees and the longer-tubed plants they once pollinated.”

California climate change:

http://www.climatechange.ca.gov/climate_action_team/reports/

http://oehha.ca.gov/multimedia/epic/   [this contains list of all state’s climate change reports]

California’s official West Nile Virus website:

http://westnile.ca.gov/wnv_basics.htm

California West Nile infection map:

http://westnile.ca.gov/latest_activity.php

Carbon tetrachloride still being emitted:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/23/ozone-depleting-compound-found_n_5701157.html

Center for Biological Diversity:

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/index.html

Christmas Bird Count Analysis:

WWW.audubon.org/bird/bacc/species.html

Climate change anxiety:

http://www.care2.com/causes/climate-change-anxiety-and-how-we-can-become-climate-resilient.html

Climate change disagreement, not debate:

“How to Talk About climate Change So People Will Listen. By Charles Mann. “The Atlantic,” Sept., 2014.

Climate-induced Faunal Change in North America. Joshua Lawler, et al. Ecological Society of America. “Ecology.” Vol. 90. March, 2009. 588-597.

Climate Peril: The Intelligent Reader’s Guide to Understanding the Climate Crisis. By John Berger. Northbrae Books. 2014.

Coal use worse than we’ve been told:

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28942403

Coal burning waste:

http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/coalvswind/c02d.html

Cod Population Collapses in Maine waters:

http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/1029/Fishermen-obeyed-their-quotas-so-why-did-Maine-cod-stocks-collapse

Clean energy getting cheaper: http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2016/03/climate-change-and-conservative-brain-death.html

“Climate for Coffee” in “National Geographic” magazine. Sept. 2015.

Cool it. The Climate Issue. National Geographic. November, 2015.

Corvids replanting forests: http://arstechnica.com/science/2016/02/corvids-could-save-forests-from-the-effects-of-climate-change/

Drought to Extend Beyond Western U.S.
http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/2016/0222/Not-just-a-western-problem-drought-threatens-forests-across-US

Eggs Hatch Early:
http://www.forbes.com/sites/grrlscientist/2016/02/18/the-heat-is-on-climate-change-causes-birds-to-hatch-early/#59ff96293f0c

 

Extinction

Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History. Elizabeth Colbert. Henry Holt. 2014.

Extinctions predicted:

“Extinction risk from climate change” letter in Nature 427, 145-148 (8 January 2004) | doi:10.1038/nature02121; Received 10 September 2003; Accepted 13 October 2003, By Chris Thomas, et al.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6970/full/nature02121.html

Feral.   George Monbiot. Penguin. 2013. Argues for helping all animals and plants find space for survival.

Website for book: http://www.monbiot.com/2013/05/24/feral-searching-for-enchantment-on-the-frontiers-of-rewilding/

Greenhouse gas list, according to IPCC:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPCC_list_of_greenhouse_gases

Greenland ice sheet loss accelerates:

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28852980

Grizzly-Polar Bear Hybridization

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/17/magazine/should-you-fear-the-pizzly-bear.html?

Health hazards with climate change:

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/health.html

IPCC report, Fall, 2014:

http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2014/08/26/climate-change-report-united-nations/14638079/

Christina Larson “Hostile shores”

Science 9 October 2015: 150-152. [DOI:10.1126/science.350.6257.150]. Describes environmental degradation of marshlands used by Asian migrant birds.

 

Methane from rice:

http://www.ghgonline.org/methanerice.htm

Methane sources:

http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/ch4.html

Miami: The Siege of Miami. Elizabeth Kolbert. New Yorker magazine. Dec. 21 & 28, 2015. Pp. 42-50.

Minnesota moose population:

http://www.startribune.com/local/270761141.html

Moose population decreases:

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/15/science/earth/something-is-killing-off-the-moose.html

Monarch migration and species hybrids on NPR’s “On Point:”

http://onpoint.wbur.org/2014/08/20/monarch-butterflies-migration-climate-change

Monarch population decline:

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/08/140819-monarch-butterfly-milkweed-environment-ecology-science/

Monarch population decline covered by “Living on Earth,” of NPR:

http://www.loe.org/shows/shows.html?programID=14-P13-00026

Monterey pine disease:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine_pitch_canker

Mountaintop species and climate change:

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/biodiversity/mountaintop_species/index.html

National Wildlife Federation, on adaptation to climate change:

www.nwf.org/climate-smart

Oak sudden death:

http://www.suddenoakdeath.org/

Ocean acidification effects on marine life:

http://oceana.org/en/our-work/climate-energy/ocean-acidification/learn-act/effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-marine-species-ecosystems

“PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTIONS IN THE YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIE (PICA NUTTALLI): A CALIFORNIA ENDEMIC BIRD”

Holly B. Ernest, Leslie W. Woods and Bruce R. Hoar

Journal of Wildlife Diseases Apr 2010, Vol. 46, No. 2 (April 2010) pp. 401-408

M

 

Moller, Anders, et al. (eds). Feeling the Heat. Elsevier, Burlington, MA. 2006.

Pepperwood Preserve climate change studies:

http://app.pepperwoodpreserve.org/pls/apex/f?p=514:10:7789024140228

Phytophthora: a plant killer loose in California
https://baynature.org/articles/phytophthora-new-strains-breaking-the-mold/

Pine beetles:

http://e360.yale.edu/feature/whats_killing_the_great_forests_of_the_american_west/2252/

Pollinator Threats: http://www.ipbes.net/article/pollinators-vital-our-food-supply-under-threat

Rising land:

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-08-21/epic-drought-in-west-is-literally-moving-mountains.html

Satellite Launched to Monitor Sea Level: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/satellite-launched-to-monitor-sea-level-global-warming/

Solar power installation kills birds:

http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2014/08/22/pecking-order-energys-toll-on-birds

Species Moving Toward the Poles Eli Fenichel from the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies: https://environment.yale.edu/profile/eli-fenichel/research

Starfish die-off on Pacific Coast:

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/scientists-zero-whats-causing-starfish-die-offs/

Tricolored Blackbird Population Crisis

http://ca.audubon.org/newsroom/press-releases/2014/california-fish-and-game-commission-considers-emergency-listing-tricolo

Urban heat islands:

www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/20/urban-heat-island-effect-us-cities_n_5696009.html?

Warming hiatus:

http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/atlantic-ocean-slows-global-warming-but-scientists-believe-hiatus-will-end-around-2030-1.2743216?cmp=fbtl

Weather caused by climate change?   http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/11/opinion/what-weather-is-the-fault-of-climate-change.html?

White-tailed Ptarmigan’s future:

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/birds/white-tailed_ptarmigan/map.html

http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/birds/white-tailed_ptarmigan/

Why Are We Waiting? The Logic, Urgency, and Promise of Tackling Climate Change. Nicholas Stern. MIT Press. 2015.

World Health Organization on climate change, starvation and disease:

http://www.who.int/topics/climate/en/

 

 

HOW DID WORLD RECORD BREAKER GET HIS GREAT GRAY?

November 28, 2015

Noah Strycker came to the expert when he wanted to add15. GGO Mother tree lichen 2195 IMG_5447 Great Gray Owl to his year list as he was on his way to setting his global record for most birds seen in a calendar year.  Noah has topped 5000 species.  Here’s his blog about finding Great Gray Owls with co-author Peter Thiemann.

CLIMATE CHANGE TALK–HERE’S MY BIBLIOGRAPHY

October 10, 2015

I speak about western birds and climate change at 530pm in Hannon Library at Southern Oregon University, Ashland, Oregon on the night of October 15th. Talk is free.

CLIMATE CHANGE: A SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PACIFIC COAST BIRDERS This bibliography include articles and books that deal with species outside the Avian clan but changes in moose or monarch populations, or diseases in forest trees cannot be isolated from similar or related affects on birds.

Alaska’s spruce bark beetle crisis:
http://forestry.alaska.gov/insects/sprucebarkbeetle.htm

Amphibian decline:
http://amphibiaweb.org/declines/declines.html

Aridity:
A Great Aridness. William de Buys.

All the Wild That Remains. David Gessner. Book describes the environmental thoughts of Stegner and Abbey and author visits sites they knew and loved.

When the Rivers Run Dry. Fred Pearce.

Avian keratin disorder:
http://atowhee.wordpress.com/2014/08/14/freak-beak/
I am investigating an epizootic of similar bill deformities in Alaska. This epizootic has recently spread to the Pacific Northwest, with a large cluster of bill deformities appearing in the Puget Sound region. Birds affected by this ‘avian keratin disorder’ have bills that are abnormally long and often crossed, such as in this nuthatch. We’ve determined that the keratin layer of the beak (like the material in a person’s fingernails) is growing too rapidly. Despite extensive testing, we still don’t know what’s causing the problem. We’ve documented beak deformities among a large number of species, including chickadees, crows, nuthatches, jays, woodpeckers, ravens, and several raptors. We are very interested in receiving reports of any birds with abnormal bills such as this one. Please visit our website at the USGS Alaska Science Center or contact me directly:
http://alaska.usgs.gov/science/biology/landbirds/beak_deformity/index.html
–Colleen Handel
Research Wildlife Biologist
USGS Alaska Science Center
cmhandel@usgs.gov

Beetle infestation:
Empire of the Beetle. Andrew Nikiforuk.
Birds as sentinel species: “Canaries in a Global Cole Mine?” pp. 1337-1338. “Ecology” 88(5), 2007. Review of the book Birds and Climate Change by Moller et al. Elsevier. Burlington, Mass. 2006.

Bobcat-lynx hybrids:
http://www.nrri.umn.edu/lynx/information/hybrid.html

Bumble bee evolution right now: Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change. Authors: Nicole E. Miller-Struttmann, Jennifer C. Geib, James D. Franklin, et al. Science 25 September 2015: 1541-1544. [DOI:10.1126/science.aab0868] Researchers write: “We found that in two alpine bumble bee species, decreases in tongue length have evolved over 40 years. Co-occurring flowers have not become shallower, nor are small-flowered plants more prolific. We argue that declining floral resources because of warmer summers have favored generalist foraging, leading to a mismatch between shorter-tongued bees and the longer-tubed plants they once pollinated.”

California climate change:
http://www.climatechange.ca.gov/climate_action_team/reports/
http://oehha.ca.gov/multimedia/epic/ [this contains list of all state’s climate change reports]

California’s official West Nile Virus website:
http://westnile.ca.gov/wnv_basics.htm

California West Nile infection map:
http://westnile.ca.gov/latest_activity.php

Carbon tetrachloride still being emitted:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/23/ozone-depleting-compound-found_n_5701157.html

Center for Biological Diversity:
http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/index.html

Christmas Bird Count Analysis:
WWW.audubon.org/bird/bacc/species.html

Climate change anxiety:
http://www.care2.com/causes/climate-change-anxiety-and-how-we-can-become-climate-resilient.html

Climate change disagreement, not debate:
“How to Talk About climate Change So People Will Listen. By Charles Mann. “The Atlantic,” Sept., 2014.

Climate Peril: The Intelligent Reader’s Guide to Understanding the Climate Crisis. By John Berger. Northbrae Books. 2014.

Coal use worse than we’ve been told:
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28942403

Coal burning waste:
http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/coalvswind/c02d.html

Coffee:
“Climate for Coffee” in “National Geographic” magazine. Sept. 2015.

Extinction
Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History. Elizabeth Colbert. Henry Holt. 2014.

Extinctions predicted:
“Extinction risk from climate change” letter in Nature 427, 145-148 (8 January 2004) | doi:10.1038/nature02121; Received 10 September 2003; Accepted 13 October 2003, By Chris Thomas, et al.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6970/full/nature02121.html

Feral. George Monbiot. Penguin. 2013. Argues for helping all animals and plants find space for survival.
Website for book: http://www.monbiot.com/2013/05/24/feral-searching-for-enchantment-on-the-frontiers-of-rewilding/

Greenhouse gas list, according to IPCC:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IPCC_list_of_greenhouse_gases

Greenland ice sheet loss accelerates:
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28852980

Grizzly-Polar Bear Hybridization
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/17/magazine/should-you-fear-the-pizzly-bear.html?

Health hazards with climate change:
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/health.html

IPCC report, Fall, 2014:
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2014/08/26/climate-change-report-united-nations/14638079/

Christina Larson “Hostile shores”
Science 9 October 2015: 150-152. [DOI:10.1126/science.350.6257.150]. Describes environmental degradation of marshlands used by Asian migrant birds.

Methane from rice:
http://www.ghgonline.org/methanerice.htm

Methane sources:
http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/ch4.html

Minnesota moose population:
http://www.startribune.com/local/270761141.html

Moose population decreases:
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/15/science/earth/something-is-killing-off-the-moose.html

Monarch migration and species hybrids on NPR’s “On Point:”
http://onpoint.wbur.org/2014/08/20/monarch-butterflies-migration-climate-change

Monarch population decline:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/08/140819-monarch-butterfly-milkweed-environment-ecology-science/

Monarch population decline covered by “Living on Earth,” of NPR:
http://www.loe.org/shows/shows.html?programID=14-P13-00026

Monterey pine disease:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pine_pitch_canker

Mountaintop species and climate change:
http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/programs/biodiversity/mountaintop_species/index.html

National Wildlife Federation, on adaptation to climate change:
http://www.nwf.org/climate-smart

Oak sudden death:
http://www.suddenoakdeath.org/

Ocean acidification effects on marine life:
http://oceana.org/en/our-work/climate-energy/ocean-acidification/learn-act/effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-marine-species-ecosystems
“PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTIONS IN THE YELLOW-BILLED MAGPIE (PICA NUTTALLI): A CALIFORNIA ENDEMIC BIRD”
Holly B. Ernest, Leslie W. Woods and Bruce R. Hoar
Journal of Wildlife Diseases Apr 2010, Vol. 46, No. 2 (April 2010) pp. 401-408
M

Moller, Anders, et al. (eds). Feeling the Heat. Elsevier, Burlington, MA. 2006.

Pepperwood Preserve climate change studies:
http://app.pepperwoodpreserve.org/pls/apex/f?p=514:10:7789024140228

Pine beetles:
http://e360.yale.edu/feature/whats_killing_the_great_forests_of_the_american_west/2252/

Rising land:
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-08-21/epic-drought-in-west-is-literally-moving-mountains.html

Solar power installation kills birds:
http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2014/08/22/pecking-order-energys-toll-on-birds

Starfish die-off on Pacific Coast:
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/scientists-zero-whats-causing-starfish-die-offs/

Tricolored Blackbird Population Crisis
http://ca.audubon.org/newsroom/press-releases/2014/california-fish-and-game-commission-considers-emergency-listing-tricolo
Urban heat islands:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/20/urban-heat-island-effect-us-cities_n_5696009.html?

Warming hiatus:
http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/atlantic-ocean-slows-global-warming-but-scientists-believe-hiatus-will-end-around-2030-1.2743216?cmp=fbtl

White-tailed Ptarmigan’s future:
http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/birds/white-tailed_ptarmigan/map.html
http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/species/birds/white-tailed_ptarmigan/
World Health Organization on climate change, starvation and disease:
http://www.who.int/topics/climate/en/

GREAT GRAY OWL NEST RESEARCH IN CALIFORNIA

August 19, 2015

Here’s link to site about my book on the Pacific Slope Great Gray Owls.

The Institute for Bird Populations has just published a study of all known Great Gray Owl nest sites in Yosemite area of the Sierra Nevada. Here is the official citing for the article: Wu, J.X., R.B. Siegel, H.L. Loffland, M.W. Tingley, S.L. Stock, K.N. Roberts, J.J. Keane, J.R. Medley, R. Bridgman, and C. Stermer. 2015. Diversity of nest sites and nesting habitats used by Great Gray Owls in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 79:937-947.

It cost me $38 to see the whole thing so I will give you a summary.

As I found when writing my Great Gray Owl book this species is NOT a strictly montane bird, nor is it confined to conifer forests. It may now be most likely there because we humans have driven them out of valleys and more oak-dominated terrain like the Sacramento and Willamette River Valleys where they may have nested three centuries ago.

One-fifth of the nests in this study were found below 1000′ in elevation.

30% of nest trees were oaks, large oaks, within conifer stands.

The GGO prefers well-rotted trees beneath a fairly dense canopy. Message to land managers: don’t rip down all your old, rotting oaks or Doug-fir.

Many of the preferred nest snags lasted about five years after the first nesting use. Good naturally occuring nest trees are ephemeral

Slowly deteriorating trees like incense-cedar and sugar pines are not used for nesting.

This study included no man-made platforms which are frequently used by Oregon populations of GGOs, both in the Wallowa Mountains and southern Cascades.

This study covered 56 nest sites in the California Sierra confirmed between 1973 and 2014. The southernmost one is on the Tulare-Fresno County border. That’s the southernmost GGO nest in the known world.GGO PLUS OWLET2 (1280x960)This picture shows female with owlet in nest that was probably originally built by Ravens, not in a rotted out, broken tree trunk as most often found in Yosemite area. The pictured nest was used only once in the southern Cascades of Oregon. One of the two owlets survived fledging from this nest in a ponderosa.